English Useful Phrases For Essays On Education

Content:

  1. Sample Research Paper Paragraph
  2. Explanation
  3. Adding Additional Information to Support a Point
  4. Demonstrating Contrast
  5. Adding a Proviso or Acknowledging Reservations
  6. Giving Examples
  7. Signifying Importance
  8. Summarizing
  9. Stating Your Opinion

Words and Phrases Used in Academic Writing

In academic writing, there are certain words and phrases that are used consistently. If a student is able to become familiar with these words and phrases, their academic writing will certainly improve faster and their comprehension of academic texts will increase.

The difference between the right word and almost the right word is the difference between lightning and a lightning bug.” – Mark Twain, The Wit and Wisdom of Mark Twain

In this post, I will share the words and phrases you can equip yourself with when writing or reading academic papers.

Academic Writing about Research

Research is an essential part of any good academic paper. Without it, claims and opinions are not viable and hardly believable. Plus, without research, it is difficult to know much about your chosen subject.

[Tweet ““Research is formalized curiosity. It is poking and prying with a purpose.” – Zora Neale Hurston”]

By providing evidence of research, readers can trust what you write is concrete, accurate to the best of your knowledge, and reliable. Here is a sample of research writing in action, with citations given. It is a paragraph from a research essay:

Sample Research Paper Paragraph

Video games encourage children to associate happiness and pleasure with the capability to cause pain to others. They develop the feeling that in order to be happy, one has to make other people suffer.

Children who play video games tend to develop selfish behavior (Anderson & Bushman, 2001). Video games teach the player to be dependent and since the child is often left alone while playing on a game console, he or she can develop selfish behaviors.

A certain study that was done at a Minneapolis-based national institute for media indicated that kids can get addicted to video games and exhibit social phobias. The interactive quality of virtual games is quite different from passively viewing movies or television.

The games allow players to be active participants in the script. The players who are able to benefit from acts of violence are then able to proceed to the next level (Sherry, 2001).

Phrases and Words

  • a few studies…
  • other studies…
  • a certain study, … indicated that…
  • little attention has been devoted to the impact…
  • given the lack of critical attention paid to…
  • there is a divergence between …… and what they actually do. This divergence
  • occurs because…
  • several schools of thought have emerged…
  • as shown previously…
  • prior research has suggested…
  • another factor…
  • the underlying concept…
  • the likelihood that…
  • research indicates…
  • what is demonstrated…
  • against this backdrop…
  • the central issue addressed here is the relationship between…
  • the topic of …… warrants research attention for …… reasons.
  • to answer these questions…
  • the present study attempts to crystallize …… factors which influence …… by….
  • analyzing the relationship between …… and…
  • in examining…
  • in order to better understanding…
  • a deeper understanding of the process of…
  • we illustrate this procedure by…
  • we illustrate this procedure by using…
  • our contention is that…
  • this research builds on existing knowledge in the fields of…
  • insights drawn from scholarly literature are supplemented with those from…
  • it accentuates the realization that…
  • the issue is whether or not…
  • there is evidence that …… has a positive affect.
  • these arguments suggest…
  • given this orientation…
  • the same logic underlies…
  • in this context, it is worthwhile to consider…
  • in this respect, …
  • in contrast, …
  • a major trait…
  • typically, …
  • traditionally, …
  • this leads to…
  • generally, …
  • as noted earlier…
  • whereas…
  • briefly…
  • also, …
  • still, …
  • yet…
  • accordingly…
  • initially, it may seem…
  • surprisingly, …
  • next,…
  • in contrast…
  • nevertheless…
  • as a result…
  • hence…
  • accordingly…
  • respectively…
  • as a consequence…
  • consequently…
  • thus, …
  • therefore, …
  • for this reason…
  • because of this…

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Explanation

Explaining the topics and issues within your main subject is intrinsic for writing well in academic writing. Without going into detail about the information you present, you are doing a disservice to your readers who expect to know more about the subtle side of an issue or topic.

Explanation gives readers the needed substance for learning about something new and extraordinary. You should not over-explain, as well as you should not under-explain. Find a balance in your academic writing.

Knowing key phrases and words that will lead into your section for explanation is a great way to get a head start on making your essay well-rounded and in-depth.

[Tweet ““Don’t tell me the moon is shining; show me the glint of light on broken glass.” Anton Chekhov”]

Sample Of Explanation

On the other hand, chauvinism as sexism refers both to males and females, as it assumes the belief in the superiority of one sex over the other.

Male chauvinists believe women must stay at home, cook and raise children, while men are supposed to live an active life, build careers and self-actualize (Iota 156). At the same time, some forms of modern feminism can be referred to as female chauvinism.

For example, despite the fact that Islam strictly prohibits male chauvinism, it is widely believed in western media that Islam accepts it as a norm. For example, Muslims are often considered disdainful in the way they treat their women, though it is not true for the majority of Muslims.

On the contrary, women often furiously argue about the numerous advantages of women over men. This can also be called chauvinism.

Phrases and Words

  • in order to…
  • in other words…
  • to put it in another way…
  • that is to say…
  • to that end….
  • besides, …
  • furthermore, …
  • in addition, …
  • moreover…
  • likewise…
  • indeed…
  • in truth…
  • in fact…
  • also…
  • as well…
  • foremost…
  • ranking above all others…
  • preceding all others…

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Adding Additional Information to Support a Point

It is never enough to give one line of thought to describe or support a claim. A claim is always weak if it is backed up in a one-sided way. That is why it is important to give a comprehensive view of your main topic to your readers.

“Sometimes I like to list the strongest arguments I can find to support a point of view I think is wrong. When I have them before me, I am up against a real opponent rather than a hypothetical one that is an easy target for me to hit.” – Lewis B. Smedes

Sample of Adding Additional Information to Support a Point

The risks associated with drug experimentation depend on various factors, such as quantity, frequency of use, combinations used, and the way a certain drug is taken.

An excess of sedatives leads to fatal overdoses. Stimulant and hallucinogenic drugs on the other hand lead to psychotic behavior and to the loss of the sense of reality.

Besides, constantly increasing doses lends to drug tolerance: the user needs to take more of the narcotic substance to achieve the desired effect. High tolerance levels also prompt overdose and even death – this especially refers to heroin.

Most of the cases of drug overdoses which have been reported involve combinations of tranquilizers, opiates and alcohol (Lyons, 2003).

Phrases and Words

  • moreover…
  • furthermore…
  • what’s more…
  • likewise…
  • similarly…
  • another key thing to remember…
  • as well as…
  • not only…. but also…
  • coupled with…
  • initially…
  • subsequently…
  • not to mention…
  • additionally, …
  • in addition, …
  • also, …
  • besides that, …
  • and…
  • apart from…
  • in addition to…
  • such as…
  • another…
  • besides, …
  • further…
  • too…
  • then…
  • of equal importance…
  • equally important…
  • another…

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Demonstrating Contrast

When writing persuasive essays, compare and contrast essays, or any essay that focuses on giving a comprehensive view on a subject, knowing how to contrast your main topic and subtopics with opposing information is important.

In order to fully present your main topic and its components, it is important to show other views that are valid. Usually, these other views are shown to demonstrate which side of the argument or issue is most appropriate to consider.

“There’s a rule of writing: if everything is funny, nothing is funny; if everything is sad, nothing is sad. You want that contrast.” – J. Michael Straczynski

Example of Demonstrating Contrast

Material goods are as easily lost as obtained: malfunctions, loss, theft, and other misfortunes easily affect the material welfare of an individual who connects their happiness only with items they possess.

At the same time, non-material factors of happiness cannot be lost so easily; in most cases, a person must undergo severe psychological pressure or go through various life obstacles to change in a negative way.

Phrases and Words

  • however, …
  • on the other hand, …
  • having said that, …
  • by contrast, …
  • by comparison, …
  • then again, …
  • that said, …
  • yet…
  • at the same time, …
  • nonetheless, …
  • on the contrary, …
  • after all, …
  • though…
  • in contrast…
  • nevertheless, …
  • but…
  • otherwise…
  • notwithstanding…
  • conversely, …
  • instead, …
  • rather…
  • on one hand…
  • on the other hand…
  • a clear difference…
  • a conflicting viewpoint…
  • despite…
  • even so, …
  • for all that…
  • still another…
  • in another way…
  • the antithesis of…
  • still…
  • and yet…
  • of course, …
  • or…
  • in spite of this…
  • actually, …
  • a year ago, …
  • for all that, …
  • strangely enough, …
  • ironically, …

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Adding a Proviso or Acknowledging Reservations

Sometimes in academic papers, it is important to note the lack of what can be said in reference to either research or comprehensive understanding.

Writers cannot always find the perfect sources or enough information for their papers, and not all subjects have enough information on them to warrant a comprehensive paper.

“There are things known and there are things unknown, and in between are the doors of perception.” -Aldous Huxley”

Example of Adding a Proviso

Though the death penalty has had many studies done on it to record its effectiveness in deterring criminals, the studies are usually biased and run by lobbyists.

This means that the studies, even nationally recognized ones, are often flawed based on bias of the research team. Due to this issue, we have to rely on logical reasoning rather than studies that tout to be exact, when in fact they are formed out of special interests.

Phrases and Words

  • though…
  • this means…
  • due to this issue…
  • despite this…
  • with this in mind…
  • provided that…
  • in view of…
  • in light…
  • nonetheless…
  • nevertheless…
  • notwithstanding…
  • due to a lack of…
  • however, there are drawbacks to
  • due to insufficient evidence…
  • a comprehensive view of the issue cannot be formed due to…
  • since the claims were unsubstantiated…
  • since the evidence was not validated…
  • according to….the amount of information on this topic is insufficient to…

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Giving Examples

It is extremely important to supply examples to your readers which will illustrate your points. Without examples being given to illustrate your claims, a realistic picture cannot be given to your readers of what you mean to say or what you are trying to demonstrate.

Giving examples also makes your writing more comprehensive, showing other ways of looking at a topic and allows readers to investigate information further. Without giving examples in your writing, your writing can be dry, unsubstantiated, and not well-rounded.

“Really good writing, from my perspective, runs a lot like a visual on the screen. You need to create that kind of detail and have credibility with the reader, so the reader knows that you were really there, that you really experienced it, that you know the details. That comes out of seeing.” – Ann Voskamp

Example of Giving Examples

Usually, people write in their CVs something along the lines of, “Enjoy working in a team,” or “Work best in a team.” However, working in a team often means devaluing the work done.

For example, if you are a lone wolf who has just accomplished a complicated project, you get all the credit, your reputation grows faster, and you get paid more.

On the other hand, in a team, the credit cannot be given to someone specific; instead, a team manager usually gathers everyone in a conference room and says something like, “Good job everyone.”

This might be satisfying if you have a strong self-identification with your team, but usually this is not enough. This may lead to a decrease of personal interest and motivation in the work done. Do you want all the credit for the work done to be shared among a number of people? (Silverton Internet College)

Phrases and Words

  • for instance, …
  • for example, …
  • on the other hand, …
  • to give an illustration, …
  • demonstrating this…
  • illustrating this…
  • specifically, …
  • in particular, …
  • some notable examples are…
  • some exemplary examples of this are…
  • an obvious example of this is…
  • to give a brief example, …
  • to give a simple example, …
  • a case in point…
  • such as…
  • supposing…
  • let us say that…
  • some examples are…
  • like…
  • take this scenario into consideration:…
  • imagine this situation:…
  • to be specific, …
  • moreover, …
  • furthermore, …
  • just as important…
  • similarly, …
  • in the same way…

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Signifying Importance

When you want to show that a certain point in your writing is significant or should be paid more attention to, you can use certain words and phrases to do so. Sometimes, without words and phrases that mark or point out the importance of a certain point, an essay can get disorganized.

“Show what is important in order to guide others to meaning.”
- Anonymous”

Example of Signifying Importance

Why poetry matters to the masses significantly relies on individual perception. Notably, the subjective view of what poetry’s place is in social culture can be interpreted in a myriad ways.

The key subjective view to take into consideration is how poetry affects our perception of what we call reality.

The main proponents of poetry claim, above all, that poetry affects individual perception in a way that shifts one’s consciousness either permanently or temporarily.

Phrases and Words

  • significantly…
  • notably, ….
  • the key… to take into consideration…
  • importantly…
  • indeed…
  • without a doubt…
  • undoubtedly…
  • certainly…
  • surely…
  • to repeat, …
  • of course…
  • by all means…
  • make no mistake,…
  • ultimately, … is the greatest … we have.
  • above all, …
  • first and foremost…
  • again, …
  • to be sure, …
  • in fact, …
  • as a matter of fact, …
  • as I have said, …
  • as have been noted, …

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Summarizing

When you have written a large chunk of information, it is important to summarize information for your readers so they can firmly grasp what has been presented.

Summarizing can seem simple, but in fact, it is an art. It takes great effort to write simply and coherently about a vast amount of information, and to make it come together as a cohesive whole in writing.

“If I had to summarize, most broadly, my concerns as a writer, I’d say the question ‘How then must we live?’ is at the heart of it, for me.” – Claire Messud

Example of Summarizing

Overall, we can see the effect that video games have on modern American children. Studies have shown that rampant attention deficit disorder in America coincides directly with the amount of video game usage among children of 6-13 years of age.

Also, with conclusive evidence, we can see how these games are tangibly tied to outward violence at school, as the studies mentioned before illustrated that the actions seen by children within certain games were reenacted in real life (usually in the school yard).

As a last note, I would like to add that the issues associated with the link between video games and children is ever-increasing, and the United States government should take action against the high usage of such games among youth in order to salvage whatever we have left of a stable American society.

Phrases and Words

  • as a last note, …
  • conclusive evidence…
  • overall…
  • in conclusion…
  • above all…
  • compelling…
  • all things considered…
  • at last…
  • in summary, …
  • to summarize, …
  • to conclude…
  • in light of all these…
  • on the whole…
  • in summation, …
  • to sum up, …
  • in sum, …
  • in short, …
  • in brief, …
  • to repeat, …
  • briefly, …
  • finally, …
  • therefore…
  • as I have said…
  • as you can see…
  • in a nutshell, …
  • to recap, …
  • to give you a digest of…
  • to give you a snippet of…
  • here is a regurgitation of…
  • here is a run through of…
  • here is a run down of…
  • it all boils down to the fact that…
  • to get the meat of the issue…
  • as was previously stated, …
  • as has been mentioned, …
  • given these points, …
  • as has been noted, …
  • to put it briefly, …
  • consequently, …
  • in consequence, …
  • altogether, …
  • in a word, …
  • in the end, …
  • thus, …
  • as I have shown, …
  • hence, …
  • accordingly, …
  • as a result…

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Stating Your Opinion

In many types of essays, you will need to state your opinion about the main issue contained in your essay. Supplying your opinion can make your essay more personal and multi-dimensional. Often, teachers ask students to give their opinion on heated topics to demonstrate critical thinking.

“Our opinions become fixed at the point where we stop thinking.” – Ernest Renan”

Example of Stating Your Opinion

To tell the truth, I barely managed to finish reading, “The Hunger Games.” After reading such novels as “1984,” “Brave New World,” “Dr. Strangelove,” or even the recent “Metro 2033,” where dystopia and the post-apocalypse are shown in all their grimness, “The Hunger Games” looks, to put it mildly, unconvincing.

This is perhaps the best word to describe literally everything in this novel, starting with the main characters and ending with the world events that take place. If you are a logical person able to think critically, try not to take this book too close to heart.

Phrases and Words

  • to tell the truth, …
  • to put it mildly, …
  • in my experience, …
  • as far as I’m concerned, …
  • speaking for myself, …
  • in my opinion, …
  • personally, I think…
  • I would say that…
  • I would suggest that…
  • I would like to point out that…
  • I believe that…
  • what I mean is…
  • it is unjustifiable to say that…
  • to my mind…
  • if you ask me…
  • to my way of thinking…
  • in my view…
  • what I think is that…
  • as for me…
  • for me…
  • if you ask me…
  • the way I see it…
  • as far as I am concerned…
  • from my point of view…
  • I hold the opinion that…
  • my impression is that…
  • I consider…
  • my conviction is that…
  • I am under the impression that…
  • speaking personally, …
  • I dare say that…
  • I gather that…
  • I have no doubt that…
  • I hold the view that…
  • I believe that…
  • as far as I understand…
  • as far as I can see…
  • in my perception…
  • as I see it, …
  • according to me, …
  • I agree with this view/opinion…
  • I agree with this point of view, but…

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About the Author

Nicholas Klacsanzky is a professional technical writer and editor. He is currently the content coordinator of AcademicHelp.net, a website dedicated to housing a one-stop online guide to writing that benefits students and professionals alike.

I stumbled across this amazing and exhaustive list of phrases for advanced writing. I don’t know who made it but a big thank you to whoever it was! It’s gold dust!

You can download it here:

https://skydrive.live.com/redir?resid=79CFF252BEEA0A7D!439&authkey=!AHr7Ja0Lshhl2Y0

CAE – WRITING AND VOCABULARY

1)  FORMAL WRITING (Reports and proposals)

Introduction-The main purpose/aim of (this report) is to outline/

present / discuss / examine / evaluate…

-This report (outlines/looks at)…

-This report is based on…

  Generalising-On the whole,…

-In general,…

Making recommendations and concluding

-It is clear from customer feedback that…-With regard to…, the general view seems to be…

-In the light of (this year’s experience),…

-Perhaps the most effective way of…

-If the (centre) is to attract more customers, it is

vital that…

-It would be a good idea to…

-It is (therefore) believed / obvious that…would be

ideal for…

-It would (not) be advisable / practical to…

-We suggest/propose that…

-We suggest/propose + ing

-A (more spacious area) would be the solution…/

an effective way of…

-In light of the above, we believe the followingmeasures should be adopted…

-In the short/long term, we suggest you should

consider…

-My recommendations are as follows:…

-In my view, in future, we should…

-To improve the situation, we recommend…

-It is recommended that…

-To sum up,…To conclude,…

-I hope that the plan outlined/presented in this

report meets with your approval…

-I hope that the recommendations outlined/

presented in this report will receive your serious

consideration.

Style

Do not use contractions.

-Use passive forms whenever possible.

-Use relative clauses to join ideas: The period during which he lived was full of uncertainty.

-Use these formal words:  like à such as   /   kids à children

a lot (of)à many / a large number of  + countable noun

a lot (of)à much / a great amount of / a great deal of + uncountable

a lot (intensity)à very much / significantly / dramatically

– Avoid using the word things / something,  etc. Use a more specific word (problems, situation, solutions,

  subjects, and so on).

2)  SEMI-FORMAL WRITING

Adressing  the reader

-Have you ever wondered (what the college would be like if)…? If the answer is (yes)…, you…

–If you want a different kind of experience,… / As you know,…

-Doesn’t it just make everyone feel (positive about…)?

-If you have a few hours to spare,…is worth seeing.

Describing location-Located / Situated (just a few miles away from…), X

is…

-Built (just next to…), X is…

-Some minutes from…, X is…

Giving information

-Throughout it history, X…

-X is by far the oldest…

-Y is the best known…

-What is particular spectacular is…

-Recent additions/changes include…

   Giving your opinion-X is intended for youn(ger) people…

-X is popular with (children)…

-In fact, (NEGATIVE OPINION)

-It’s clearly been a good idea to…

  Giving practical information

-Anyone wishing to (apply)…can/should…

-(We) participate in…/organise…/run…

-(The club) offers/provides a range of (competitive

matches for)…

-One of the most popular (features of our club is)…

-Members have the opportunity to…/…are able to

Accuracy

-Never omit the subject pronoun: Many people

believe IT is important to…    I believe IT is a good  idea

  study…

– Do not use unnecessary subject pronouns: This is a problem which  it  is essential to solve.

-Make sure the subject and the verb agree: Attracting tourists involves improving local facilities.

(SINGULAR SUBJECTà attracting tourists + SINGULAR VERBà involves)

Attitude clauses and phrases

Generally speaking,…

Annoyingly,…  Naturally,…  Strangely,… Surprisingly,… Evidently,…

Indeed,… In fact,… Admittedly,… Presumably,…

.  .   .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .   .  .  .  .  .  .  . .  .   .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .   .  .  .  .  .  .  .

RELATED WORDS AND PHRASES

Agreement

-A great number of people share the view that tourism will have a negative impact on the island.

-Today there is general / widespread agreement that pollution from cars and planes is threatening the

future of our planet.

-It is now widely accepted that the universe began with the so-called ‘big bang’.

Disagreement

–Opinions differ about the proper relationship between the mass media and society.

–There is considerable disagreement among experts about the usefulness of these tests.

–There has been a great deal of controversy over abortion in the US.

Advantages and disadvantages

-Regular exercise has many benefits, including reducing the risk of heart disease.

-Despite a few problems with the design, the car’s advantages clearly outweigh its disadvantages.

–The major drawback of this method is that it can be very time-consuming.

–The downside of running your own business is that you are responsible if anything goes wrong.

Cause

–lead to: The research could lead to a cure for many serious illnesses.

–result in: The fire resulted in damage to their property.

–be responsible for: He was responsible for the accident.

–bring about:The war brought about enormous social change.

–give rise to: Poor performance in exams can give rise to depression and even thoughts of suicide.

–trigger:to make something suddenly start to happen, especially a bad situation such as a crisis or a war, or

a medical condition: Certain foods can trigger allergies.

–contribute to: Passive smoking could contribute to the development of respiratory diseases among

nonsmokers.

–factor: Cost is often the deciding factor when choosing any product.

Effect

–impact on: His work has had an enormous impact on the study of genetics.

–influence on:  In his book, he examines the influence of the media on our society.

–affect: (v) The disease affects women more than men.

–influence: (v) She has influenced him a lot.

–implications:  The results of the study could have important implications for future educational policy.

Emphasizing

-I would like to stress that the research is still at an early stage.

–It should be noted that there are a number of alternative methods available.

–It is worth bearing in mind that 90% of the scientists researching herbicides in the US are employed by

  chemical companies.

-Factors such as temperature and acidity play a crucial role in determining how well the process works.

-These insects play a vital part in the food chain.

–It is essential that the work is carried out as soon as possible.

-The climate is much colder, especially in the far north.

Problems

–issue: Issue is used especially about problems that affect a lot of people in society:  International terrorism

  is the biggest issue (=the most important issue) facing the world today. Previous governments failed to

  address (=try to deal with) social issues such as unemployment and homelessness.

–challenge: something difficult that you must do or deal with, which needs a lot of skill, effort, and

  determination: She said she was looking forward to the challenge of starting up a new business on her

  own.

–difficulty:  The company has managed to overcome (=deal with) its recent financial difficulties.

  Many people experience difficulty in sleeping at some time in their lives.

– trouble:  a problem or several problems that make something difficult, spoil your plans etc:  Students of

  English often have trouble with phrasal verbs.  The company ran into trouble (=started to have problems)

  when it tried to expand too quickly.

–setback:  something that happens which stops you making progress or which makes things worse than

  they were before:  Despite some early setbacks, his campaign for the presidency was successful.

–obstacle:  Criminal gangs are the biggest obstacle to democratic reform.

–dilemma:  The doctors were faced with a moral dilemma.

–vicious circle:  Some developing countries get caught in a vicious circle. They cannot afford to pay their

  debt repayments, and so the debts get even bigger.

–complication

Increase

–increase by (percent):  Last year, the number of burglaries increased by 15 percent.

–go up: Last month unemployment went up from 1.6 million to just over 1.7 million.

–grow:  The volume of traffic on our roads continues to grow.

–expand:  After two years of no growth, the economy started to expand again in 2003.

–double/triple/quadruple: Since 1950, the number of people dying from cancer has almost doubled.

-growth: (n) There has been a huge growth in sales of big 4-wheel-drive vehicles.

Decrease

–decrease by (percent):  The average rainfall has decreased by around 30 percent.

–go down: The percentage of fat in our diets has gone down.

–fall: The number of tigers in the wild has fallen to just over 10,000.

–drop:  At night, the temperature drops to minus 20 degrees.

–decline: decline is used about numbers or amounts, and also about the level or standard of something:

In rural areas, the standard of living continued to decline.

ADMIRE

–respect / look up to

look up to: The children need someone they can look up to.

–think highly of:  Most of the students and staff think very highly of Dr. Smith.

–think highly of

have a high opinion of

have a high opinion of

–highly regarded/respected

highly regarded/respected: a highly respected surgeon

be an admirer of

ADVANCED

–sophisticated / high-tech (equipment) / state-of-the-art (technology)

SURPRISING  (Avoid using “colourful” vocabulary in formal writing!)

–amazing / unbelievable / incredible / astonishing / staggering

–come as a surprise / come as a shock / amaze / astonish

SURPRISED  (Avoid using “colourful” vocabulary in formal writing!)

–amazed / astonished / speechless / be taken aback (He was taken aback by the news)

EXCITING  (Avoid using “colourful” vocabulary in formal writing!)

–thrilling / gripping / exhilarating / action-packed

BORING 

–dull / tedious / monotonous / uninspiring

BEAUTIFUL PEOPLE     (Avoid using “colourful” vocabulary in formal writing!)

–attractive / good-looking / gorgeous / striking / stunning

BEAUTIFUL PLACES     (Avoid using “colourful” vocabulary in formal writing!)

–breathtaking / stunning / awe-inspiring / striking / spectacular

–spotless: very clean

UGLY PLACES / PEOPLE      (Avoid using “colourful” vocabulary in formal writing!)

–unattractive / unpleasant / unsightly / hideous (=extremely ugly)

–filthy: very dirty

IN BAD CONDITION  (PLACES)

-in bad condition / dilapidated / run-down

NEW

–latest / brand-new / innovative (idea or system)

OLD

–old-fashioned / outdated / obsolete

VERY

–absolutely  / extremely / highly / incredibly / remarkably

GOOD PERFORMANCE / PIECE OF WORK

–excellent / outstanding / impressive / exceptional

GOOD FOR A PARTICULAR JOB, PURPOSE, ETC

–suitable / right / proper / appropriate / be suited to

WRONG INFORMATION / NUMBERS

–incorrect / inaccurate / misleading

NOT REASONABLE / NECESSARY

–unjustified / unreasonable / without good reason

RELAX

–unwind / wind down: Set in spectacular countryside, the Shiga Hotel is the perfect place to unwind.

–make someone feel at ease

–relaxed / feel at ease / laid-back (not easily worried or annoyed) /

NERVOUS

–tense / uneasy / anxious / be under stress

PUBLIC SERVICES

–facilities: The facilities at the hotel were excellent — tennis courts, swimming pool, several bars and a good

restaurant.

–amenities: things such as shops, parks, or restaurants that make living or working in a place more pleasant

I prefer this part of the city because there are plenty of good amenities.

COMPARISONS

–a great deal / far / much + comparative (cheaper / more economical than)

–a bit / slightly / barely + comparative (cheaper / more economical than)

–by far / easily the + superlative (This is easily the best solution we can think of)

VERY MUCH / NOT VERY MUCH

–dramatically / significantly / slightly

And

–As well (as) / in addition to:   Over 600 people will lose their jobs, in addition to the 400 people who left

the company last year.

–In addition: A fifth of the world’s population lives on less than $1 a day. In addition, over 100 million

children are living on the streets.

–Furthermore / Moreover:  used at the beginning of a sentence when adding an important fact that is

connected with what you have just said:  The drug has strong side effects. Furthermore, it can be

addictive.

If

–as long as / on condition that / provided that

Or

–alternatively: You can go up into the mountains. Alternatively, you can stroll around one of Switzerland’s

delightful cities where the old mixes with the new.

–on THE one hand … on the other (hand)

Because

–As  / since:  As it was a hot day, they decided to leave all the windows open.  Since it is difficult to predict

how the climate will change, it is not possible to say which countries will suffer the most.

–thanks to

–due to/owing to + NOUN   

The delay was due to a problem with the ship’s engines.

–due to/owing to + THE FACT THAT + subject + verb

The men did most of the work in the fields. This was partly due to the fact that the men were stronger.

But/although

–While / whereas / by contrast

–However:However is usually used in the middle of a sentence, separated from the rest of the sentence by

commas: Jack and his family managed to escape before the soldiers arrived. Other families in the village,

however, were less lucky. Or it comes at the beginning of a sentence: He began his academic career as a

mathematician. However, his main achievements were in the field of nuclear physics.

–Nevertheless: Nevertheless is usually used at the beginning of a sentence, or at the end.

–in spite of/despite + NOUN   

Despite his lack of formal education, he became one of the world’s leading mathematicians.

–in spite of/despite + verb + ING  

This was a dinosaur that weighed only 10 tons, in spite of being some 28 metres long.

–in spite of/despite + THE FACT THAT + subject + verb

Many people are worried that cellphones may be dangerous to health, despite the fact that most of the

research suggests that there is little risk.

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