It was during the rule of Duke Xiao from 361 to 338 B.C. that the groundwork was laid for conquest, primarily through the work of Shang Yang, an administrator from the state of Wey who was appointed Chancellor.
Shang Yang was a vigorous reformer, systematically reworking the social order of Qin society, eventually creating a massive, complicated bureaucratic state and advocating for the unification of Chinese states.
Among Shang Yang’s innovations was a successful system to expand the army beyond the nobility, giving land as a reward to peasants who enlisted. This helped create a massive infantry that was less expensive to maintain than the traditional chariot forces.
Following Duke Xiao’s death, Shang Yang was charged with treason by the old aristocrats in the state. He attempted to fight and create his own territory but was defeated and executed in 338 B.C. with five chariots pulling him apart for spectators in a market. But Shang Yang’s ideas had already laid the foundation for the Qin Empire.
Qin dynasty, also spelled Kin, Wade-Giles romanizationCh’in, dynasty that established the first great Chinese empire. The Qin—which lasted only from 221 to 207 bce but from which the name China is derived—established the approximate boundaries and basic administrative system that all subsequent Chinese dynasties were to follow for the next two millennia.
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China: The Qin empire (221–207 bce)
The history of the Qin dynasty may be traced to the 8th century . According to the Qin historical record, when the Zhou royal house was reestablished at the eastern capital in 770 , the Qin ruling house…READ MORE
The dynasty was originated by the state of Qin, one of the many small feudal states into which China was divided between 771 and 221 bce. The Qin, which occupied the strategic Wei River valley in the extreme northwestern area of the country, was one of the least Sinicized of those small states and one of the most martial. Between the middle of the 3rd and the end of the 2nd century bce, the rulers of Qin began to centralize state power, creating a rigid system of laws that were applicable throughout the country and dividing the state into a series of commanderies and prefectures ruled by officials appointed by the central government. Under those changes, Qin slowly began to conquer its surrounding states, emerging into a major power in China.
Finally, in 246 bce, the boy king Ying Zheng came to the throne. He, together with his minister Li Si, completed the Qin conquests and in 221 created the Qin empire. Ying Zheng proclaimed himself Qin Shihuangdi (“First Sovereign Emperor of Qin”). To rule the vast territory, the Qin instituted a rigid, authoritarian government; they standardized the writing system, standardized the measurements of length and weight and the width of highways, abolished all feudal privileges, oversaw large-scale construction of what then became the first Great Wall, and in 213, to halt subversive thought, ordered all books burned, except those on such utilitarian subjects as medicine.
Those harsh methods, combined with the huge tax levies needed to pay for the construction projects and wars, took their toll, and rebellion erupted after Shihuangdi’s death in 210 bce. In 207 the dynasty was overthrown and, after a short transitional period, was replaced by the Han dynasty (206 bce–220 ce).
The Qin dynasty left two architectural monuments of massive proportions—one the Great Wall of China, which actually connected sections of a number of existing short walls, and the other a great palace for the first emperor, which contained a hall of state some 1,500 feet (450 metres) square. Its most important artistic contribution may have been the simplification and standardization of the emerging written Chinese language. Little survives of Qin painting, but it generally emulated what was being produced late in the Zhou period (1046–256 bce). Silhouettes drawn on funerary slabs depict feasts and beasts (mythical and actual) and historic scenes. The Qin tomb near present-day Xi’an in Shaanxi province, the burial place of Shihuangdi with an army of some 8,000 life-size terra-cotta soldiers and horses, was designated a UNESCOWorld Heritage site in 1987. The Qin did not last long enough to stamp out literature and learning effectively, and much of the rich legacy of the ancient Shang dynasty managed to survive into the successor Han, under which the arts thrived greatly.