April 24, 2017
The Malayalam (മലയാളം) language's name originated from nature. Mala means mountain and Alam means land or place. Malayalam belongs to the Dravidian family of languages and is spoken by approximately 38 million people across the world. Among the four Dravidian languages, Malayalam was one of the last evolved languages and was derived from Tamil, which is one of the oldest languages known to the world.
The majority of speakers come from the south Indian state of Kerala and from the Lakshadweep Islands (Laccadives) from the west coast of India. It is also spoken in the neighboring states of Tamil, Nadu and Karnataka. It is one of the 22 recognized languages in India and was also designated as the Classical Language of India in 2013. Records show that the oldest written record of Malayalam is the vazhappaLLi inscription from 830 A.D.
The Malayalam script, known as kolezhuthu (Rod-Script), is derived from the ancient Grandha script. The language includes 53 characters with 37 consonants and 16 long and short vowels. However, a new style of writing was introduced in 1981, which helped reduce the number of characters radically. It is very easy for "Malayalees" (speakers of Malayalam) to speak, read, write or understand this language, but it is difficult for an NRI (non-resident Indian) to understand due to a different script and style of writing.
Malayalam is the primary language for only one state of India, but it has various dialects among the native speakers. The differences are easily evident in accent or vocabulary and differ due to religion, community and status.
As with many other world languages, Malayalam borrows some of its vocabulary from other languages. Its vocabulary has several words borrowed from Sanskrit, English and Portuguese.
There is a saying in India that you will find a person from Kerala in almost every corner of the world and due to the same reason, the language has found its way abroad. Many universities around the world teach Malayalam, including in the United States.
Malayalam Quick Facts
When written in English, this is the only language that turns out to be a palindrome (a word that reads the same backward as forward).
It is the 8th most spoken language in India.
The most circulated daily regional newspaper in India is in Malayalam. Kerala alone prints 170 daily papers, 235 weekly and over 550 monthly periodicals.
14 districts in Kerala have different dialects and people sometimes find it difficult to understand their own language due to these dialects.
Many visitors to India travel to Kerala, which is known as "God's country". This phrase will not disappoint you when you see the amazing mountains, lakes and scenic beauty. Learning a little Malayalam will help you communicate with the people who live in this beautiful place. Start with a Namaskaram (hello) and always end with a Nanni (thank you).
Resources on GPI's Localization Services
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Globalization is the way that local or national ways of doing things become global, that is, done together around the world. It is about economics or trade, technology, politics, and culture. People feel differently about globalization: some think it helps everyone while others think it hurts some people.
Definition[change | change source]
Globalization is a term which may be used broadly to mean doing things as distant people do them, or more narrowly to mean complying to global standards in economy, politics, culture, education, environment or other matters. It describes the way countries and people of the world interact and integrate. Many things have become globalized as people come into contact.
Economic globalization is how countries are coming together as one big global economy, making international trade easier. In the late 20th century, many countries agreed to lower tariffs, or taxes on goods that are imported from other countries. Telegraphy and other communication technologies have helped people to buy and sell products from around the world, thus bringing globalization. Herman E. Daly has said that there is an important difference between internationalization and globalization. Internationalization is about nations working together for the same goals. These are things like treaties, alliances, and other international agreements. Globalization is about international trade being less blocked by national borders.
Political globalization is how institutions and countries can influence the whole world. The United Nations are an example of globalization because most countries of the world are members of its General Assembly. This international organization can make countries follow rules and apply economic sanctions to a country that doesn't. This means the countries in the U.N will punish them by not talking or trading with them, so they don't benefit from globalization.
Cultural globalization is how culture is becoming homogeneous, which means that people from all over the world act in similar way. For example, many people around the world write with the Latin alphabet, wear T-shirts and jeans and watch Hollywood movies and other media.
Criticism[change | change source]
Some people, like Noam Chomsky, do not like globalization because they feel it only helps rich people get richer by making poor people poorer. Offshoreoutsourcing, such as a company hiring workers in a developing country, is often a part of globalization. This sometimes means that some people in a developed country lose their jobs. Joseph Stiglitz said that international groups like the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund (IMF) have made it harder for poorer nations to get richer. Globalization also means that problems from other countries will affect your country. For example the Great Depression of the 1930s started in the United States but affected the entire world.
Many countries also dislike it when international organizations such as the United Nations tell them what to do. However they obey to avoid sanctions. Many people also criticize the fact that globalization means that fewer people are deciding what brands, like Coca-Cola and McDonald's, taking over smaller, local shops and businesses. They criticize the fact that powerful countries have bigger influence on world culture than others. For example, the United States is the biggest cultural exporter, which means that countries around the world are becoming like the United States. However, this hurts local cultures. Jean Baudrillard believes that globalization hurts local cultures and is the cause of most terrorism. He also believes that most supporters of globalization just want to stay in power.
Gregory Meyjes interprets globalization as a largely hegemonic, unequal process of socio-cultural imposition. Questioning the various processes (economic, political, cultural) by which globalization or globalisation has favored rapid Anglo-cultural dominance over a more gradual, egalitarian evolution towards an inclusive world civilization, Meyjes argues for cultural policies that support "ecological" relations between local ethnocultural traditions, by protecting cultural specificity in the short term and allow as many cultural groups as possible to organically contribute to the whole. At the global level, Meyjes therefore proposes the term universalization or universalisation to denote a process of (largely) non-imposed socio-cultural exchange between state-level and sub-state-level groups and "nations" – i.e. a transnational process that informs the gradual emergence of a universal civilization.
Support[change | change source]
Others, like Thomas Friedman, believe that globalization can bring people together and make everyone richer without getting rid of local cultures. People who support globalization also believe that it makes war less likely because it is bad for business.Francis Fukuyama also argued that globalization would eventually lead to a system of world governance which would cause wars to end.
Many believe that globalization helps out poorer nations by bringing them business. A report by the World Bank said that poverty in India and Indonesia was cut in half because of globalization. The report also said that people in poorer nations are living longer and better because they were making more money.
Related pages[change | change source]
References[change | change source]
More Reading[change | change source]
- Peter Berger, Four Faces of Global Culture (The National Interest, Fall 1997).
- Friedman, Thomas L. (2005). The World Is Flat. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux. ISBN 0-374-29288-4.
- Kitching, Gavin (2001). Seeking Social Justice through Globalization. Escaping a Nationalist Perspective. Penn State Press. ISBN 0-271-02162-4.
- Mander, Jerry (1996). The case against the global economy : and for a turn toward the local. San Francisco: Sierra Club Books. ISBN 0-87156-865-9.
- Steger, Manfred (2003). Globalization: A Very Short Introduction. Oxford, New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-280359-X.
- Stiglitz, Joseph E. (2002). Globalization and Its Discontents. New York: W.W. Norton. ISBN 0-393-32439-7.
- Wolf, Martin (2004). Why Globalization Works. New Haven: Yale University Press. ISBN 978-0300102529.